uruknet.info
  اوروكنت.إنفو
     
    informazione dal medio oriente
    information from middle east
    المعلومات من الشرق الأوسط

[ home page] | [ tutte le notizie/all news ] | [ download banner] | [ ultimo aggiornamento/last update 13/07/2019 10:39 ] 96649


english italiano

  [ Subscribe our newsletter!   -   Iscriviti alla nostra newsletter! ]  




[96649]



Uruknet on Alexa


End Gaza Siege
End Gaza Siege

>

:: Segnala Uruknet agli amici. Clicka qui.
:: Invite your friends to Uruknet. Click here.




:: Segnalaci un articolo
:: Tell us of an article






Israeli settlers use six times more water than Palestinians — new report

Adri Nieuwhof

8water_2.jpg

While Israeli settlers in the West Bank enjoy abundant access to water, these young Palestinians have to carry bottles of water on a donkey.
(Issam Rimawi / APA images)



April 8, 2013

Israeli settlers in the West Bank consume six times as much water as Palestinians living nearby, the human rights organization Al Haq has found. 

In a new report released today, the organization exposes how Israel operates a system of water apartheid. Palestinian communities are strangled by Israel’s water policies through unlawful exploitation and appropriation of water resources, confiscation and destruction of water infrastructure and restriction of water supply, it says.

Al Haq concludes that Israel’s water apartheid policies are based on three pillars. The first pillar concerns the distinction between two racial groups. The second pillar consists of the policies and practices that facilitate the segregation of the population into different geographical areas. The third pillar rests upon the use of "security" laws to "justify" inhuman acts against Palestinians.

It is important underscore that Israel’s water policies are part of an institutionalized system of domination and oppression.

Two distinct groups

The first pillar of water apartheid requires the distinction of two groups, which is a core element of the crime of apartheid. The first group are the Palestinians who over the years have been unwillingly sub-divided into Palestinians citizens of Israel, Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza, and Palestinian refugees living in exile. All are Palestinian, because of their identity as the indigenous people of historic Palestine. In addition, their right to self-determination is internationally recognized.

The second group is composed of Jewish-Israelis, meaning "Israelis with Jewish identity," an official category imposed and monitored by the State of Israel. It recognizes a person as a member of the global Jewish community, thereby granting certain rights, such as residency. The Basic Laws — the closest thing that Israel has to a written constitution — distinguishes the group as "Jewish nationals." While Palestinians living in Israel can be citizens, nationality of Israel is reserved for Jews.

Segregation

Israel has used the distinction between the Palestinian and Jewish-Israeli groups to segregate the population into different geographical areas — the second pillar of water apartheid. Inside Israel, the distinction is used to grant citizenship to only those Palestinians who remained inside Israel after 1948. At the same time, Israeli citizenship is granted beyond its territory to all Jews, regardless of their geographical location, personal history or affiliation to the territory.

In the West Bank, the segregation policies have resulted in two parallel and unequal societies. A privileged Jewish-Israeli settler society lives in illegal colonies with good conditions, including an uninterrupted, abundant supply of water. By contrast, the indigenous Palestinian society is denied most of its basic rights, including sovereignty over its own water resources.

Palestinians are forcibly confined to land-locked enclaves with minimum water resources available. As a result, Palestinian communities are strangled and cannot fully develop as a group: denying such development is considered an inhuman act under the UN’s 1973 Apartheid Convention. The commission of inhuman acts against the subordinate group is the second core element of the definition of apartheid.

Strangulation

In its report, Al Haq provides extensive information about how Israel’s discriminatory water policies lead to the strangulation of Palestinian communities. For example, water apartheid policies result in huge differences in water consumption. For example, the consumption of over 500,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank is about six times higher than that of 2.6 million Palestinians in the West Bank (excluding East Jerusalem.)

Moreover, the Palestinian average water consumption of 73 liter per capita per day does not reach the minimum consumption level of 100 liters recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Israelis living inside Israel use about 300 liters and Israeli settlers in the West Bank use 369 liters each per day. 

By September 2011, around 313,000 Palestinians were not connected to a water network. And about 50,000 Palestinians from 151 communities had to live on less than 20 liters each per day, an amount WHO recommends for "short-term survival" in emergency and disaster situations.

In occupied East Jerusalem, more than 50 percent of the Palestinians living there —  around 160,000 people — do not have legal water connections because Israeli law does not allow it, mainly because the required housing permits are not issued. Furthermore, some Palestinian areas on the eastern side of the Israel’s wall in East Jerusalem have been excluded from the boundaries of the city. This has left the residents of Beit Iksa, Kufr Aqab, and Shuafat refugee camp with no access to municipal services, including water and sanitation.

In the Jordan Valley, water apartheid policies have resulted in extreme differences in water consumption between settlers and Palestinians, ranging from 700 liters per day in the settlements of Mitzpe Shalem and Qalya to a meager 22 liters for Palestinians in the village of al-Hadidiya.



Household consumption Palestinian villages vs Israeli settlements.

(Al Haq)

The 1.6 million inhabitants of the Gaza Strip depend for their natural water supply solely on the Coastal Aquifer next to the Strip. But as a transboundary water resource, Gaza has to share it with Israel, which has access to other water resources. However, the Gaza Strip can use only one quarter of total extractions from the Coastal Aquifer.

A responsible use of shared transboundary water resources requires coordination, something which Israel refuses. As a result, the water quality in the Gaza Strip has progressively deteriorated due to over-extraction and pollution of the Coastal Aquifer. The deterioration is also partly due to Israel’s policy of denying construction materials for wastewater treatment plants and other water-related infrastructure into the Gaza Strip. Therefore, about 90 to 95 per cent of the water it supplies is unfit for human consumption. It is estimated that the quality of water in the Coastal Aquifer will continue to deteriorate and may become unusable by 2016, when, in the absence of any alternatives, the Gaza Strip could become unfit for human habitation.

Institutionalized oppression

The third pillar of Israel’s water apartheid rests upon its "security" laws, policies and practices. The water policies and practices are integrated in an institutionalized system of Jewish-Israeli domination and oppression of the Palestinians as a group — thus amounting to a system of "water apartheid."

For example, by occupying the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip in the 1967 war, Israel increased its direct control over water resources in the region with nearly 50 percent. Immediately after the war, the water system for the West Bank and Gaza was integrated into the Israeli system through a series of military orders which are still in force today. Israel declared the banks of the lower Jordan River a closed military zone, denying access to Palestinians.

Furthermore, the construction of Israel’s wall in the West Bank has given Israel control over 28 agricultural wells. 

Demolitions

Israel has caused extensive damage to Palestinian water infrastructure during military attacks on the Gaza strip. For example, during Operation Cast Lead in late 2008 and early 2009, about 919 water wells, 229 irrigation pools and 243 water pumps were destroyed. Since 2005, more than 300 water wells have been destroyed in the so-called buffer zone.

In 2011, Israel demolished over 20 water wells, around 35 cisterns, and around 10 water tanks and springs in the West Bank (excluding East Jerusalem). At the same time, Israel confiscated 45 water, sanitation and hygiene structures in the same area. The water infrastructure was indispensable Palestinian rural and herder communities. In 2012, Israeli forces demolished at least 32 water structures took place between January and October.



Source


:: Article nr. 96649 sent on 10-apr-2013 06:36 ECT

www.uruknet.info?p=96649



:: The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this website.

The section for the comments of our readers has been closed, because of many out-of-topics.
Now you can post your own comments into our Facebook page: www.facebook.com/uruknet




Warning: include(./share/share2.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/content/25/8427425/html/vhosts/uruknet/colonna-centrale-pagina-ansi.php on line 385

Warning: include(): Failed opening './share/share2.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/local/php5_6/lib/php') in /home/content/25/8427425/html/vhosts/uruknet/colonna-centrale-pagina-ansi.php on line 385



       
[ Printable version ] | [ Send it to a friend ]


[ Contatto/Contact ] | [ Home Page ] | [Tutte le notizie/All news ]







Uruknet on Twitter




:: RSS updated to 2.0

:: English
:: Italiano



:: Uruknet for your mobile phone:
www.uruknet.mobi


Uruknet on Facebook






:: Motore di ricerca / Search Engine


uruknet
the web



:: Immagini / Pictures


Initial
Middle




The newsletter archive




L'Impero si è fermato a Bahgdad, by Valeria Poletti


Modulo per ordini




subscribe

:: Newsletter

:: Comments


Haq Agency
Haq Agency - English

Haq Agency - Arabic


AMSI
AMSI - Association of Muslim Scholars in Iraq - English

AMSI - Association of Muslim Scholars in Iraq - Arabic




Font size
Carattere
1 2 3





:: All events








     

[ home page] | [ tutte le notizie/all news ] | [ download banner] | [ ultimo aggiornamento/last update 13/07/2019 10:39 ]




Uruknet receives daily many hacking attempts. To prevent this, we have 10 websites on 6 servers in different places. So, if the website is slow or it does not answer, you can recall one of the other web sites: www.uruknet.info www.uruknet.de www.uruknet.biz www.uruknet.org.uk www.uruknet.com www.uruknet.org - www.uruknet.it www.uruknet.eu www.uruknet.net www.uruknet.web.at.it




:: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more info go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
::  We always mention the author and link the original site and page of every article.
uruknet, uruklink, iraq, uruqlink, iraq, irak, irakeno, iraqui, uruk, uruqlink, saddam hussein, baghdad, mesopotamia, babilonia, uday, qusay, udai, qusai,hussein, feddayn, fedayn saddam, mujaheddin, mojahidin, tarek aziz, chalabi, iraqui, baath, ba'ht, Aljazira, aljazeera, Iraq, Saddam Hussein, Palestina, Sharon, Israele, Nasser, ahram, hayat, sharq awsat, iraqwar,irakwar All pictures

 

I nostri partner - Our Partners:


TEV S.r.l.

TEV S.r.l.: hosting

www.tev.it

Progetto Niz

niz: news management

www.niz.it

Digitbrand

digitbrand: ".it" domains

www.digitbrand.com

Worlwide Mirror Web-Sites:
www.uruknet.info (Main)
www.uruknet.com
www.uruknet.net
www.uruknet.org
www.uruknet.us (USA)
www.uruknet.su (Soviet Union)
www.uruknet.ru (Russia)
www.uruknet.it (Association)
www.uruknet.web.at.it
www.uruknet.biz
www.uruknet.mobi (For Mobile Phones)
www.uruknet.org.uk (UK)
www.uruknet.de (Germany)
www.uruknet.ir (Iran)
www.uruknet.eu (Europe)
wap.uruknet.info (For Mobile Phones)
rss.uruknet.info (For Rss Feeds)
www.uruknet.tel

Vat Number: IT-97475012153