June 9, 2006
Ehren Watada is a 27-year-old First Lieutenant in the United States Army. He joined the Army in 2003 during the run-up to the Iraq war. He turned in his resignation to protest the war in Iraq in January 2006. He expects to receive orders to deploy in late June and will become the first Lieutenant to refuse orders to deploy to Iraq, setting the stage for what could be the biggest movement of GI resistance since the Vietnam War. He faces a court-martial, up to two years in prison for missing movement by design, a dishonorable discharge, and other possible charges. He says speaking against an illegal and immoral war is worth all of this and more. Journalist SARAH OLSON spoke with Watada in May.
SARAH OLSON: When you joined the Army in 2003, what were your goals?
LT. EHREN WATADA: 2003 was a couple of years after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. I had the idea that my country needed me and that I needed to serve my country. I still strongly believe that. I strongly believe in service and duty. Thatís one of the reasons I joined: because of patriotism.
I took an oath to the US Constitution, and to the values and the principles it represents. It makes us strongly unique. We donít allow tyranny; we believe in accountability and checks and balances and a government thatís by and for the people. The military must safeguard those freedoms and those principles and the democracy that makes us unique. A lot of people, like myself, join the military because they love their country, and they love what it stands for.
OLSON: You joined the Army during the run-up to the Iraq war, but you had misgivings about the war. How did that happen?
WATADA: Like everybody in America and around the world, I heard what they were saying on television about the stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction, and the ties to al-Qaeda and 9/11. I also saw the millions of people around the world protesting and listened to the people resigning from the government in protest. I realized that the war probably wasnít justified until we found proof of these accusations the President and his deputies were making against Iraq.
But I also believed we should give the President the benefit of the doubt. At that time, I never believedóI could never conceive ofóour leader betraying the trust we had in him.
OLSON: What was your experience in the military?
WATADA: My first duty assignment was in Korea. Itís hard learning to be an officer, and it was hard being stationed overseas. It is a different kind of situation that youíre put in. Youíre not just being told what to do and execute. As an officer you are constantly leading by example. You have to do the right thing even when you donít necessarily want to. When you go into the field, itís not like a civilian job where you go home at the end of the day, take a shower, relax, and eat a nice meal.
OLSON: So you got the order to go to Iraq after you returned from Korea. What were your thoughts at the time?
WATADA: Back in Korea we trained for a separate mission but we all knew what was going on in Iraq. Our commanders were telling us to be ready for war and to start training for it.
When I came back I still had doubts about the war and why we were in it. When they told me I was going to deploy, I said, "OK. Iím going to start training for it, and Iím going to start training the guys under me. And Iím going to do that to the best of my ability."
OLSON: So what changed?
WATADA: I realized that to go to war, I needed to educate myself in every way possible. Why were we going to this particular war? What were the effects of war? What were the consequences for soldiers coming home? I began reading everything I could.
One of many books I read was James Bamfordís Pretext for War. As I read about the level of deception the Bush Administration used to initiate and process this war, I was shocked. I became ashamed of wearing the uniform. How can we wear something with such a time-honored tradition, knowing we waged war based on a misrepresentation and lies? It was a betrayal of the trust of the American people. And these lies were a betrayal of the trust of the military and the soldiers.
My mind was in turmoil. Do I follow orders and participate in something that I believe to be wrong? When you join the Army you learn to follow orders without question. Soldiers are apolitical and you donít voice your opinion out loud.
I started asking: why are we dying? Why are we losing limbs? For what? I listened to the President and his deputies say we were fighting for democracy; we were fighting for a better Iraq. I just started to think about those things. Are those things the real reasons why we are there, the real reasons we are dying? But I felt there was nothing to be done and this administration was just continually violating the law to serve their purpose and there was nothing to stop them.
The deciding moment for me was in January of 2006. I watched clips of military funerals. I saw the photos of these families. The children. The mothers and the fathers as they sat by the grave, or as they came out of the funerals. One really hard picture for me was a little boy leaving his fatherís funeral. He couldnít face the camera so he was covering his eyes. I felt like I couldnít watch that anymore. I couldnít be silent anymore and condone something that I felt was deeply wrong.
OLSON: You made the decision to refuse orders to deploy to Iraq. What happened next?
WATADA: I alerted my commander this January and told him I would refuse the order to go to Iraq. He asked me to think it over. After about a week, I said, "OK, Iíve made my decision. Iíve come to believe this is an illegal and an immoral war, and the order to have us deploy to Iraq is unlawful. I wonít follow this order and I wonít participate in something I believe is wrong."
My commanders told me that I could go to Iraq in a different capacity. I wouldnít have to fire a weapon and I wouldnít be in harmís way. But thatís not what this is about. In my resignation letter I said that I would rather go to prison than do something that I felt was deeply wrong. I believe the whole war is illegal. Iím not just against bearing arms or fighting people. I am against an unjustified war.
OLSON: Youíve had about six months to think about this. Itís a pretty heavy revelation that youíre quite possibly facing prison time. How are you feeling now?
WATADA: A lot of people, including my parents, tried to talk me out of it. And I had to tell them, and I had to convince myself first, that itís not about just trying to survive. Itís not about just trying to make sure youíre safe. When you are looking your children in the eye in the future or when you are at the end of your life, you want to look back on your life and know that at a very important moment, when I had the opportunity to make the right decisions, I did so, even knowing there were negative consequences.
OLSON: What is your intellectual and moral opposition to the Iraq war? What is that based in?
WATADA: First, the war was based on false pretenses. If the President tells us we are there to destroy Saddamís weapons of mass destruction, and there are none, why are we there? Then the President said Saddam had ties to al-Qaeda and 9/11. That allegation has been proven to be false, too. So why are we going there? The President says weíre there to promote democracy and to liberate the Iraqi people. That isnít happening either.
Second, the Iraq war is not legal according to domestic and international law. It violates the Constitution and the War Powers Act that limits the President in his role as commander in chief from using the armed forces in any way he sees fit. The UN Charter, the Geneva Convention, and the Nuremberg principles all bar wars of aggression.
Finally, the occupation itself is illegal. If you look at the Army Field Manual 27-10, which governs the laws of land warfare, it states certain responsibilities for the occupying power. As the occupying power, we have failed to follow a lot of those regulations. There is no justification for why we are there or what we are doing.
OLSON: One of the common criticisms of military resisters is that you have abandoned your colleagues and that you are letting others fight a war in your place. Whatís your response to this?
WATADA: My commander asked me, "If everybody like you refused to go to Iraq, what would that leave us with?" And I guess he was trying to say we wouldnít have an army anymore, and that would be bad. But I wanted to tell him, "If that happened, the war would stop because nobody would be there to fight it."
When people say, "Youíre not being a team player," or, "You are letting your buddies down," I want to say that I am still fighting for my men, and I am supporting them. But the conscionable way to support them is not to drop artillery and cause more destruction. It is to oppose this war and help end it so all soldiers can come home. It is my duty to not follow unlawful orders and not participate in things I find morally reprehensible.
OLSON: Are your feelings common among people in the military?
WATADA: The general sentiment of people within the military is that theyíre getting a little sick and tired of this war. You can tell with the recent Zogby poll that said more than 70 percent of people in the military want to withdraw at the end of this year. Thatís a powerful statement from people within the military who arenít really given the chance to speak out publicly.
OLSON: What do you think the US should do in Iraq now?
WATADA: I think the US should pull out all troops immediately. The outbreak of the civil war is something that we caused with our invasion and our war. I donít think itís at a point right now where we can fix it.
OLSON: Youíve mentioned your sense of betrayal. Can you explain this?
WATADA: The President is the commander in chief, and although he is our leader, there must be a strong relationship of trust. Anybody whoís been in the military knows that in order to have a cohesive and effective fighting force, you need to have a certain level of trust between leaders and soldiers. And when you donít, things start to break down.
I signed a contract saying I will follow orders and do what Iím told to do. There are times when I wonít be able to question it and evaluate the legality of these orders, so I have to have the ultimate trust in my leader. I have to trust the Presidentís word and trust him to do whatís right. I have to trust him to sacrifice our lives only for justified and moral reasons. Realizing the President is taking us to a war that he mislead us about has broken that bond of trust that we had. If the President can betray my trust, itís time for me to evaluate what heís telling me to do. Iíve realized that going to this war is the wrong thing to do.
OLSON: What do you make of the growing anti-war sentiment in the country?
WATADA: I donít see it manifest. Soldiers that come back from Iraq say they get the impression many people donít know a war is going on; they say even friends and family seem more involved in popular culture and American Idol. People are not interested in the hundreds of Iraqis and the dozens of Americans dying each week.
OLSON: How does Iraqi civiliansí plight impact your decision not to go?
WATADA: Saddam Hussein was a brutal dictator. He was repressive. He did use torture. But the torture and the killing havenít stopped since weíve been there. Itís something I donít think I or anybody else in this country should be a part of.
In war, each side dehumanizes the other. American soldiers dehumanize Iraqis to the point where Iraqi civilians are nothing to them. And thatís how these atrocities occur. You have a lot of young American men and women doing things, killing a lot of innocent civilians without thinking. The Iraqis are probably worse off than they were before we invaded the country.
OLSON: Now that youíve submitted your resignation, whatís next for you?
WATADA: I submitted a resignation packet, which was disapproved. My commander asked me again if I was still going to go along with this. And I said yes of course. I still believe the same things that I did six months ago. And he said he couldnít charge me until I violate an order. So Iíve been given an order to deploy in late June. When I refuse, the chain of command will charge me and court-martial me.
OLSON: As people learn about your story, are there things you especially want people to hold in their minds and their hearts about what youíre doing and why?
WATADA: I think that we are all given freedoms and liberties by the Constitution, but I think the one God-given freedom and right that we really have is freedom of choice. The moment we tell ourselves that we no longer have that choice is the moment we take that one freedom away. The only freedom we have. And I just want to tell everybody, especially people who doubt the war, that you do have that one freedom. And thatís something that they can never take away. Yes, they will imprison you. Theyíll throw the book at you. Theyíll try to make an example out of you, but you do have that choice. And that is something that youíll have to live with for the rest of your life.